Claro - All new admin theme for Drupal 8 and 9
Translating views strings programmatically in Drupal 8
In Drupal 8 views strings like sort options, header, footer or any other string can only be translated through configuration translation but here is a code snippet to add translations for a view programmatically with config override.
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Right way to call theme functions in Drupal
Drupal core and contrib modules defines theme functions. These theme functions can be defined by themes as well. hook_theme() implementations is where all the information exists.